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    glossary_a/acacia.jpg Acacia : There are roughly 1300 species of Acacia worldwide, about 960 of them native to Australia, with the remainder spread around the tropical to warm-temperate regions of both hemispheres, including Africa, southern Asia, and the Americas.  
      Accolade : "En accolade" means presenting two similar kinds of food leaning on each other on the same plate. The term usually applies to poultry and game hens.  
   glossary_a/acetic_acid_dimer.jpg Acetic_Acid : wine or cider, fermented beyond the stage of alcohol. In diluted form, it is vinegar. Also acetic acid is used in preserving fruits to keep flesh from discoloring, and in freezing.  
     Acetomel : A mixture of honey and vinegar that produces a sweet/ sour syrup. Although it is rarely used today, in the past it was used to preserve fruits.   
    glossary_a/achar.jpg Achar  : pickles and salt relishes used in the cooking of India..  
    glossary_a/achira_canna.jpg Achira : South American plant used as arrowroot  
     Acid_Rinse : a bath of acidulated water used to prevent discoloration of peeled fruits and vegetables that brown when exposed to air..  
    glossary_a/acidulated_water.jpg Acidulated_Water : cold water with vinegar, lemon or lime juice added..  
    glossary_a/acorn_squash.jpg Acorn_Squash : a small to medium-sized acorn shaped winter squash with an orange-streaked dark green fluted shell (orange, yellow and creamy white varieties are also available), pale orange flesh, large seed cavity and a slightly sweet, nutty flavor..  
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     Ade : a fruit drink made by combining water with sugar, boiling until the sugar dissolves, then adding a citrus juice and ice..   
     Adjust : in cooking, the term means the cook must taste before serving, and add seasonings to suit the sense of what the right flavor is... (Rectifier_l'assaisonnement)   
    glossary_a/adobo_spice.jpg Adobo (spice) : a Philippine national dish of braised pork, chicken or fish. Also, a seasoned Mexican sauce made with vinegar and chilies.  
     Advocaat :A thick, yellow liqueur made from egg yolks, sugar, and alcohol. It can be served before and after dinner, on desserts, or in mixed drinks.  
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    glossary_a/aemono.jpg Aemono : a Japanese salad served with dressing, or the dressing itself..  
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    glossary_a/agar_agar.jpg Agar-Agar : seaweed used as a thickening agent, as is gelatin..  
      Agnolotti : A kind of ravioli in which the pasta is cut into small, round pieces. They are usually stuffed with meat and vegetables and then folded over like turnovers. Agnolotti are popular in the Piedmont region of Italy,where they are boiled in stock and served with butter and grated cheese.  
      Agraz : A North African sorbet made from almonds, verjuice, and sugar. It has an acidic flavor and goes well with Kirsch.  
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    glossary_a/aiguillettes.jpg Aiguillettes : thin strips of meat or fish..  
    glossary_a/aioli.jpg Aïoli : most comonly, a strongly garlic flavored mayonnaise from the Provence region ofSouthern France. It is a popular accompaniment for fish and vegetables.  
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     Aji_no_motto : Japanese name for monosodium glutamate, MSG, used by Oriental cooks on occasion to revive a dish that has turned out tasteless  
    glossary_a/herb_ajwain.jpg Ajwain  : Ajwain is one of those spices that are very often confused with other plants, despite its unambigous English name. Literature has examples of misidentification with other spices ...  
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    glossary_a/aquavit.jpg Akvavit / Aquavit : Scandinavian form of distilled alcohol made from grain or potatoes, and flavored with caraway seeds.  
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à_la : French, literally, "prepared in the style of"

 à_la_Carte : choosing dishes, listed  and priced separately  on a menu.

 à_la_King : an American dish of diced foods, usually chicken or turkey, in a cream sauce with pimientos, mushrooms, green peppers and sometimes sherry.

 à_la_Marechale : small cuts of meat and poultry wich are breaded and fried in butter. Green asparagus tips and truffles are usually in the garnish.

 à_la_Mode : Literally "following the fashion". In the United States, it is food that is served with ioce cream; in France it names braised meat smoothered in sauce.

 à_la_Niçoise : dishes with black olives, tomatoes, garlic, anchovies and dried cherries. Also a candy of caramelized sugar and browned almonds.

 à_la_Printanière : to be cooked or garnished with fresh spring vegetables. Printemps is the French word for spring.

 à_la_Provençale : a dish including garlic, olive oil, tomatoes and often black olives.

  
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 Al_dente : italian for the tooth; used to describe a food, usually pasta, that is cooked only until it gives a slight resistance when one bites into it; the food is neither soft nor overdone.  
   glossary_a/albondigas.jpg Albondigas :a Mexican dish of spiced meat balls. Also found in Spanish,Brazilian and Scottish recipes.  
    glossary_a/albumin.jpg Albumin : a protein found in egg whites, milk, green plants, seeds and animal blood  
    glossary_a/ale_map.jpg Ale : a fermented drink; the original term for beer  
    glossary_a/alfafa.jpg Alfafa   
    

 Alliaceae : The most important genus is Allium, which includes several important food plants, including onions , chives , garlic , and leeks

      Quiche ►

  
    glossary_a/ap_flour.jpg All_purpose_Four : is made from a blend of high gluten hard wheat and low gluten soft wheat. It's a fine-texture flour milled from the inner part of the wheat kernel and contains neither the germ (the sprouting part) nor the bran (the outer coating). U.S law requires that all flours not containing wheat germ must have niacin, riboflavin, thiamin and iron added. These flours are labeled "enriched" All-purpose flour comes in two basic forms___bleached and unbleached___ that can be used interchangea Flour can be bleached neither naturally, as it ages, or chemically. Most flour on he market today is presifted, requiring only that it be stirred, then spooned into a measuring cup and leveled off ___  Types of Flours  
    glossary_a/allspice_berries.jpg Allspice : a member of the pimento family and native to tropical regions in the western hemisphere; has leathery leaves, white flowers and small, brown berries, has a flavor reminiscent of a mixture of cinnamon, clove, nutmeg, ginger and pepper, also known as Jamaican pepper  
    glossary_a/allumettes_au_fromage.jpg  Allumettes : cut into matchstick sizes and shapes. Also, a puff pastry used for hors d'oeuvres .   
    glossary_a/aluminum_foil.jpg Aluminum_Foil : a thin pliable sheet of aluminum; easily molded, conduct heat well, can withstand temperature extremes and is impervious to odors, moisture and air; used to cover food for cooking (ex: en Papillote) and storage  
    

 Almond : The almond is a small deciduous tree, growing to between 4 and 10 meters in height, with a trunk of up to 30 centimeters in diameter. The young shoots are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight, then grey in their second year.     Puddings ►       Macarons ►

  
     glossary_a/herb_almond_youngfruit.jpg glossary_a/herb_almond_sweet.jpg glossary_a/herb_almond_bitter.jpg
  
    glossary_a/almond_extract.jpg Almond_Extract : a concentrated flacoring made from bitter-almond oil  and alcohol, widely used in pastries and baked goods  
     Almondine :   
    glossary_a/almond_paste.jpg Almond_Paste : a mixture of sugar, almonds, and rose water traditional among Christmas foods in Europe . Used to make marzipan and for decoration .  
      Alphabet Pasta : Pasta shapes in the form of letters and numbers. This favorite kids' shape is usually used in soups for a fun meal anytime.  
   

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source Epicurious

 Altitude (High) Cooking and Baking : Simply put, the weight of air on any surface it comes in contact with is called air (or atmospheric) pressure. There's less (or lower) air pressure at high altitudes because the blanket of air above is thinner than it would be at sea level. As a result, at sea level water boils at 212°F; at an altitude of 7,500 feet, however, it boils at about 198°F because there's not as much air pressure to inhibit the boiling action. This also means that because at high altitudes boiling water is 14 degrees cooler than at sea level, foods will take longer to cook because they're heating at a lower temperature. Lower air pressure also causes boiling water to evaporate more quickly in a high altitude. This decreased air pressure means that adjustments in some ingredients and cooking time and temperature will have to be made for high-altitude baking, as well as some cooking techniques such as candy making, deep-fat frying and canning. In general, no recipe adjustment is necessary for yeast-risen baked goods, although allowing the dough or batter to rise twice before the final pan rising develops a better flavor.

Source: © Copyright Barron's Educational Services, Inc. 1995 based on THE FOOD LOVER'S COMPANION, 2nd edition, by Sharon Tyler Herbst.


 
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    glossary_a/amaretto.jpg Amaretto : liqueur with flavor of almond although it is often made with the kernel of apricot pits. The original liqueur, Amaretto di Saronno is from Saronno, Italy .  
     Amandine : a dish garnished with sauteed almonds   
     Amaretti : Italian almond cookies reminiscent of the macaroon.   
     Amaretto : An almond flavored liqueur (made from apricot pits) from Italy. Disaronno Amaretto is a good brand to try.   
     American Cheese Processed : any of the group of U.S. cheeses made with emulsifiers to increase smoothness and pasteurized milk to increase storage life; 51% of the final weight must be cheese.  
      Amenity :
  
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 Amuse-Bouche _/_Amuse-Gueule : An amuse-bouche also called an amuse-gueule, is a single, bite-sized hors d’œuvre. Amuse-bouche are different from appetizers in that they are not ordered from a menu by patrons...

In France the Amuse Gueule can be also called a canapé and presented on trays or buffet for banquets or smaller occasions

  
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    glossary_a/anadama_bread.jpg Anadama Bread : yeast bread made of cornmeal and white flour with molasses.  
     Anaheim Chiles : Mild, long green chiles named for the area near Los Angeles where they were once cultivated. You can buy them canned (whole or chopped) and fresh.   
     Ancho Chiles : Dried poblano chiles that come in color ranging from dark red to almost black. They are moderately hot with a smokyflavor. Pasilla chiles are a good substitute.   
    glossary_a/anchovy.jpg Anchovy : a small fish usually stored in olive oil, salt or vinegar with condiments. Also sold for flavoring .  
    glossary_a/angel_food_cake.jpg Angel_Food_Cake : a light, airy cake made without egg yolks or other fats; its structure is based on the air whipped into the egg whites; traditionally baked in a tube pan.     Chiffon cake ►
  
     Angel Hair : Capellini ("Fine Hairs") A thin, delicate pasta. These strands are best if used with thinner, delicate sauces. Other uses: break in half and put in soup; use in salads or stir-fry meals.  
    glossary_a/angelique.jpg Angelica : a sweet herb used to flavor a variety of liqueurs and drinks. Candied, it is used in baking, especially fruit cakes  
    glossary_a/herb_anise_plant.jpg Anisesmall annual member of the parsley family native to the eastern Mediterranean region; has bright green leaves with a mild licorice flavor that are sometimes used as an herb or in salads.  
    glossary_a/herb_anise.jpg Anise_Star : Like anise, but stronger: Warm, sweet, aromatic. An overview on spices similar to anise is given under cicely.  
    glossary_a/herb_annatto_flower.jpg Annatto : Annatto has a weak, perfumed odour.  
     Anniversary : An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn, meaning (re)turning yearly; known in English since c. 1230) is a day that commemorates and/or celebrates a past event that occurred on the same day of the year as the initial event    Cakes ►
  
    glossary_a/antipasto1.jpg Antipasto : assorted hors d’oeuvres, Italian style. Often included are ripe black olives, green stuffed olives, garlic sausage slices, salted anchovy curled on a sliced tomato, cooked dried beans in a vinaigrette dressing, prosciutto (thinly sliced fat ham) with cantaloupe.  
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    glossary_a/Aperitif-Postcard-I-Posters.jpg Aperitif : a cooked, usually sweet, wine, taken before a meal to stimulate the appetite   
     Appetizer : a small serving of food or beverage served before or as the first course of a meal  
    glossary_a/fruit_apples.gif Apple : The tree originated from Central Asia, where its wild ancestor is still found today. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples resulting in range of desired characteristics.  
    glossary_a/apple_pome_fruits.jpg Apple : a pome fruit with generally firm flesh, which can range in flavor from sweet to tart, encased in a thin skin, which can range in color from yellow to green to red; apples can be eaten out of hand, cooked or used for juice and are grown in temperate regions worldwide and available all year, particularly in the fall.    Recipes ►
  
    glossary_a/apple_butter_jar.jpg Apple_Butter : a very thick preserve of cooked apples  
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 Apricot : a small stone fruit with a thin, velvety, pale yellow to deep burnt orange skin, a meaty golden cream to bright orange flesh and an almond-shaped pit; it is highly perishable, with a peak season during June and July; the pit's kernel is used to flavor alcoholic beverages and confection.  Tatin ►

  
    glossary_a/fruit_Aprium.jpg Aprium : an aprium, a relatively recent creation that was produced in the late 1980s by Floyd Zaiger. Apriums are complex crosses of plums and apricots, requiring several generations of crosses to create a new fruit.  
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    glossary_a/aqua_vitae.jpg Aqua_Vitae : Latin, “water of life,” used to describe clear distilled liquors and brandies.  
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    glossary_a/arborio_rice.jpg Arborio-Rice : an ovoid, short-grain rice with a hard core, white color and mild flavor; it becomes creamy when cooked and is used for risotto  
    glossary_a/areca_nut.jpg Areca_Nut : Betel nut, East India pepper plant. It is chewed in Asia to aid digestion.  
     Armagnac : A member of the brandy family known for its distinct, unpolished flavor with hints of prune. Armagnac can be found in most liquor stores. Armagnac was one of the first areas in France to begin distilling spirits, however the brandies produced have a lower profile than those from Cognac  
    glossary_a/aroma.jpg Aroma : describes flavor and fragrance, both closely related  
    glossary_a/arrack.jpg Arrack / Arak / Raki : strong liquor distilled in North Africa and in Arab lands. It is drunk in very small portions.  
    glossary_a/arrowroot_chinese.jpg Arrowroot : A flour used to thicken clear liquids because it does not cloud.  
    glossary_a/veg_artichoke.jpg Artichoke : the large flowerhead of a plant of the thistle family; has tough gray-green petal-shaped leaves with soft flesh (which is eaten) underneath, a furry choke (that is discarded) and a tender center (called the heart which is also eaten); also known as globe artichoke.  
    glossary_a/arugula.jpg Arugula : a leaf vegetable with dark green, spiky, dandelion-like leaves and a strong, spicy, peppery flavor; used in salads; also known as rocket, rugula, and rucola.  
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    glossary_a/asian_pear.jpg Asian_Pear or Pyrus Pyrifoliathere are so many varieties of Asian pear that no one description can apply to them all. Generally though this fruit is round with speckled tan skin and has a crisp, firm, grainy white texture similar to that of a pear, an apple or at times, a water chestnut. The taste is a cross between an apple and a pear - has a slight perfume quality. Native to China and Japan, Asian pears are also grown in many states in the U.S. They may be eaten raw or cooked.  
    glossary_a/veg_asparagus_gr_wh.gif Asparagus : a member of the lily family with an erect stalk and small, scale-like leaves along the stalk, capped by a ruffle of small leaves; a young stalk is tender with a slightly pungent, bitter flavor, an apple green color and a purple-tinged tip; becomes tougher as it ages.  
    glossary_a/aspics.jpg Aspic : a jelly produced from the stock of meat fish, fowl or a liquid held together with gelatin.  
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    glossary_a/athollbrose.jpg Atholl_Brose : a Scottish drink made of whisky, oatmeal , and cream sweetened with honey.  
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Auberge : is a small hotel in the countrside where travellers can drop their bag s for a night as they found a place to eat and sleep... unlikea classified hotel 

 The Auberge could be also called a "Relais" ;a station in a message forwarding system, especially for the changing of horses by couriers

  
     au_Gratin : a French term referring to a dish with a browned topping of bread crumbs and/or grated cheese; also known as gratiné. and/or grated cheese; also known as gratiné.

 au_JusFrench term for roasted meats, poultry or game served with their natural, unthickened juices.

 au_ Naturel : dishes cooked as simply as possible and served with a minimum of accompaniments.

  
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    glossary_a/fruit_avocado.jpg Avocado : a tropical fruit with a single large pit, spherical to pear shape, smooth to rough-textured skin with a green to purplish color and yellow to green flesh with a buttery texture and high unsaturated fat content; generally used like a vegetable and consumed raw; also known as an alligator pear.  
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